IPM is the integration of all control methods (Chemical, Biological or Microbial) which are the least disruptive to the environment to control pest populations. In an IPM program the pests are monitored and their levels recorded, then by using the available control methods (physical, cultural, biological, or chemical), the pests are kept from reaching unacceptable levels. If pest infestations do reach unacceptable levels, the least toxic chemical controls are used first, escalating chemical toxicity until pests are under control.
CHEMICAL CONTROL: The use of natural occurring or synthetic use in the control of a pest species.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: The use of parasites, predators and bacterial antagonists to bring pest populations below damaging levels. Examples include green lacewings, lady beetles, predatory mites, parasitic wasps and flies.
MICROBIAL CONTROL: The use of living micro-organisms to bring a pest population under control. Examples include nematodes for controlling soil insects, nosema spores for grasshopper control, milky spore of Japanese beetle.
- Grow healthy plants
- Buy pest-free planting materials
- Choose disease resistant varieties
- Plant site preparation
- Sanitation – pruning and removal of infected plant parts and foliage
- Tilling the soil
- Watering – reduce leaf wetting for certain pests; increase it for others
MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS:
- Barriers – copper barriers for snail control; screens or nets
- Mulching – weed control and water conservation
- Solarization (Solar heating) – use clear plastic sheeting
- Hosing/Syringing – for control of soft-bodied insects and mites; powdery mildew spores
- Handpicking/Crushing – for many large insects and beetles
- Hoeing – for weed control
- Traps – pheromone or colored traps can be used to monitor or trap out certain insects
GARDEN CHEMICALS AND THEIR SAFE USE:
- Insecticides – for control of insect pests such as aphids, beetles, scales, and some mites
- Miticides (=Acarcides) – for control of various types of mites
- Fungicides – for control of fungal pathogens such as powdery mildew
- Bactericides –for control of bacterial pathogens such as crown gall
- Nematicides – for control of nematodes
- Mulluscides – for control of slugs and snails
- Rodenticides – for control of rodent pests
- Herbicides – for control of weeds (grasses and broadleaf plants)
- Protectants – applied before infection of fungus spores
- Eradicant – applied after infections appear and kills on contact
- Systemic – translocated by leaves and roots and distributed in the plant to prevent infection
SAFETY IN USING GARDEN CHEMICALS
Always carefully read and follow the instructions on the product label. Pesticides can enter the human body by mistake while eating or smoking during mixing or during spraying and after spraying. Pesticides can be absorbed through the skin by direct contact or if clothing becomes wet from the chemicals, and is especially dangerous in concentrated form. Pesticides in the form of spray mist, dusts, or fumes can be inhaled into the lungs. Product labels will recommend use of rubber gloves, goggles and a respirator while applying pesticides. Shower after spraying, wash clothing separately, and clean eye glasses.
American Rose Society, Consulting Rosarian Manual, 1st Edition, June, 1995
American Rose Society, Consulting Rosarian Manual, 3rd Edition, November, 2012; Last Revised, July, 2016.